Pet and Wildlife Concerns

Anytime you use a pesticide you need to be cautious, especially when children and pets are around.

One of the main reasons I designed the Vole Control Bait Station System is to find a safer and better way to apply the poison bait.  The bait station design is much more effective and safer than placing loose bait into vole entrance holes or runways where a non-target animal may easily reach it. But I can't say the bait station is totally tamper resistant. That said, please continue reading below about the bait toxicity and consider my personal experience and recommendation at the bottom of this page.

The Least Toxic Vole Bait to Non-Target Animals

I recommend using Kaput® Rat, Mouse & Vole Bait as the bait to use in the Vole Control Bait Station System because it is labeled for vole control in all states, and is the least toxic to non-target animals of any of the rodenticide baits.


  • For example, a 50 lb. dog would have to consume 4 to 8 ounces of other rodenticides to be lethal while it would have to consume 113.5 ounces (a little over 7 lbs.) of the Kaput product.
  • The active ingredient in Kaput, Warfarin, is less likely to result in a "secondary kill", that is, another animal being poisoned from eating a vole poisoned with Kaput. Warfarin is metabolized in about 42 hours, meaning that the poison should no longer be active in the tissues. A vole may not even be dead before the active ingredient is out of its system.
  • Voles, being a small animal, do not consume a large amount of bait, so even before it is metabolized there will not be much in its system.
  • In over 19 years, Scimetrics, manufacturer of Kaput, has never had a report of a secondary kill from another animal consuming a rodent that has eaten the bait.


See charts below for more information.


Packet of Kaput Vole BaitKaput® Rat, Mouse & Vole Bait (EPA Reg. No. 72500-06) is an anticoagulant rodenticide with 0.025% Warfarin. Rodents are more susceptible to warfarin, the active ingredient in Kaput® Rat, Mouse & Vole Bait than other mammals.

The Kaput® Vole Bait is made up of eight grains that are palatable and easy to manipulate by voles. Acceptance of the grains is better than pelleted baits and its efficacy is 94.7%. It contains a special attractant so even the pickiest vole will find the bait attractive.

Voles will begin to die 4 to 5 days after feeding begins so bait shyness is not a problem.

Click Here to view the Kaput label [pdf] and the MSDS sheet [pdf]

Each packet contains two ounces of bait. It is recommended to use 3 tablespoons of bait in each Vole Control Bait Station. Approximately 12 ounces will control one Hotspot of vole activity.


Toxicity of Various Rodenticides to Dogs (50 lb.) 

Active Ingredient VS Amount of Eaten Bait to Attain Mortality

Brodifacoum 0.25 mg/kg 

    Talon, Final 0.005%
4.1 ounces
Bromadiolone 0.3 

    Contrac, Maki 0.005%
4.9 ounces
Difethialone 0.25 

    Generation 0.0025%
8.1 ounces

    Rozol 0.005%
8.0 ounces
Warfarin 20-50 

    Kaput 0.025%
113.50 ounces
Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage, University of Nebraska


If Your Pet Consumes Poison Bait:

If your pet were to consume enough of the bait, the animal would become sickly and lethargic and its gums would bleed (the saliva would look pink). You would need to get the animal to the vet right away for vitamin K, which would stop the effect of the poison.

Data from an EPA Report

How warfarin poses a lower risk factor to non-target animals when compared to other commonly used rodenticides.

A recent rodenticide risk assessment draft report published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, presented warfarin as the lowest risk to mammals and birds of the anticoagulants. Warfarin remains as an effective choice for rodent control in the U.S. Numerous reports from professionals around the country support this claim. Laboratory and field studies in the US have substantiated the fact that warfarin resistance to rodents is not an issue of concern.


Comparative analysis of overall risk to birds and mammals. Liver Retention Times of anticoaulants in mammals
Secondary Toxicity studies with carnivores and anticoagulants Overviews if rodenticide comparative ecological assessment.


This chart shows that Warfarin is the lowest risk to non-target animals of any of the other rodenticide baits. Also, it has the lowest secondary risk to birds and mammals. Secondary risks refers to the effects of the poison on an mammal or bird that eats a rodent that has consumed the bait. Warfarin has the least effect on secondary animals.


Bar Graph of Risk of Various Types of Bait on Birds and Mammals


My Personal Experiences & Recommendation

Homeowners with dogs have told me that their dogs didn't seem to notice the stations. This has been the case with our dog as well. Our dog has killed ducks and birds, but has never brought up a dead vole. She loves to bring things to the house from other people's yards, such as trash and children's toys, but she has ignored the bait stations throughout our yard.

However, all pets are different. I would take into account whether your pets currently dig for voles and whether they are destructive to property (i.e. chewing or gnawing on things in the yard as puppies do). If your pets don't dig for the voles now, then I wouldn't think they would in the future. If you choose to use the Vole Control Bait Station System, I would advise keeping a close eye on the stations and your pets in the first few days after installation. In addition, anytime you monitor the stations with the pets around take note whether they show any interest in bothering the stations.

As stated previously, anytime you use a pesticide you need to be cautious. You know your pets and their behavior best, so with these facts in mind I'll let you make an educated decision as to whether you want to give the bait station a try.

If you need further clarification, please feel free to contact me.

Marshall H. Warren - President - Vole Control, Inc.